本章将教您如何使用 Maven 管理基于Web的项目。在这里您将学习如何创建/构建/部署和运行Web应用程序。

创建Web应用程序

要创建一个简单的Java Web应用程序,我们将使用 maven-archetype-webapp 插件。因此,让我们打开命令控制台,转至 C:\ MVN 目录并执行以下 mvn 命令。

C:\MVN>mvn archetype:generate
-DgroupId = com.companyname.automobile
-DartifactId = trucks
-DarchetypeArtifactId = maven-archetype-webapp
-DinteractiveMode = false


Maven将开始处理,并将创建完整的基于Web的Java应用程序项目结构,如下所示 -

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] Searching repository for plugin with prefix: 'archetype'.
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Maven Default Project
[INFO] task-segment: [archetype:generate] (aggregator-style)
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Preparing archetype:generate
[INFO] No goals needed for project - skipping
[INFO] [archetype:generate {execution: default-cli}]
[INFO] Generating project in Batch mode
[INFO] --------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Using following parameters for creating project
from Old (1.x) Archetype: maven-archetype-webapp:1.0
[INFO] --------------------------------------------------------------------

[INFO] Parameter: groupId, Value: com.companyname.automobile
[INFO] Parameter: packageName, Value: com.companyname.automobile
[INFO] Parameter: package, Value: com.companyname.automobile
[INFO] Parameter: artifactId, Value: trucks
[INFO] Parameter: basedir, Value: C:\MVN
[INFO] Parameter: version, Value: 1.0-SNAPSHOT

[INFO] project created from Old (1.x) Archetype in dir: C:\MVN\trucks

[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------

[INFO] Total time: 16 seconds
[INFO] Finished at: Tue Jul 17 11:00:00 IST 2012
[INFO] Final Memory: 20M/89M
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------


现在转到c:/MVN目录。您将看到一个创建的java应用程序项目,名为trucks(如artifactId中所指定),如以下快照中所指定的。以下目录结构通常用于Web应用程序

Maven Web应用程序-IT猿网-图片-1

Maven使用标准的目录布局。使用上面的例子,我们可以理解以下关键概念 -

序号 文件夹结构和说明
1 trucks
包含src文件夹和pom.xml。
2 src/main/webapp
包含index.jsp和WEB-INF文件夹。
3 src/main/webapp/WEB-INF
包含web.xml
4 src/main/resources
它包含图像/属性文件。

pom.xml

<project xmlns = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xsi:schemaLocation = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
   http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
   <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
   <groupId>com.companyname.automobile</groupId>
   <artifactId>trucks</artifactId>
   <packaging>war</packaging>
   <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
   <name>trucks Maven Webapp</name>
   <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
   <dependencies>
      <dependency>
         <groupId>junit</groupId>
         <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
         <version>3.8.1</version>
         <scope>test</scope>
       </dependency>
   </dependencies>
   <build>
      <finalName>trucks</finalName>
   </build>
</project>


如果您观察,您会发现Maven也创建了一个示例JSP源文件。

打开 C:\ > MVN> trucks> src> main> webapp> 文件夹以使用以下代码查看index.jsp

<html>
   <body>
      <h2>Hello World!</h2>
   </body>
</html>


构建Web应用程序

让我们打开命令控制台,进入C:\ MVN \ trucks目录并执行以下 mvn 命令。

C:\MVN\trucks>mvn clean package


Maven将开始构建该项目。

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building trucks Maven Webapp
[INFO] task-segment: [clean, package]
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] [clean:clean {execution: default-clean}]
[INFO] [resources:resources {execution: default-resources}]

[WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to
copy filtered resources,i.e. build is platform dependent!

[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO] [compiler:compile {execution: default-compile}]
[INFO] No sources to compile
[INFO] [resources:testResources {execution: default-testResources}]

[WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to
copy filtered resources,i.e. build is platform dependent!

[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory
C:\MVN\trucks\src\test\resources
[INFO] [compiler:testCompile {execution: default-testCompile}]
[INFO] No sources to compile
[INFO] [surefire:test {execution: default-test}]
[INFO] No tests to run.
[INFO] [war:war {execution: default-war}]
[INFO] Packaging webapp
[INFO] Assembling webapp[trucks] in [C:\MVN\trucks\target\trucks]
[INFO] Processing war project
[INFO] Copying webapp resources[C:\MVN\trucks\src\main\webapp]
[INFO] Webapp assembled in[77 msecs]
[INFO] Building war: C:\MVN\trucks\target\trucks.war
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 3 seconds
[INFO] Finished at: Tue Jul 17 11:22:45 IST 2012
[INFO] Final Memory: 11M/85M
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------


部署Web应用程序

现在将在 C:\ > MVN> trucks> target> 文件夹中创建的 trucks.war 复制到您的webserver webapp目录并重新启动Web服务器。

测试Web应用程序

使用URL http://<server-name>:<port-number>/trucks/index.jsp 运行Web应用程序。

验证输出。

Maven Web应用程序-IT猿网-图片-2